|Edward Thorndike's Prediction|
|Sidney Pressey's Teaching Machine|
|M.E. LaZerte's Problem Cylinder (1929)|
|B.F. Skinner's Teaching Machine|
|Self-Adaptive Keyboard Instructor (SAKI)|
|Teaching Machines, Inc. (TMI-Grolier)|
|Apple II and the Personal Computer|
|Aviation Industry Computer-Based Training Committee (AICC)|
|Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM)|
|PLATO - The First LMS|
|Flanagan's Project PLAN|
|Havering Computer Managed Learning System|
|MIT's Project Athena|
|Interactive Learning Network|
|Personal Learning Environment (PLE)|
|Basic:||Tracking and reporting of the student's performance (pass/fail, score/grade, not started/started/completed)|
|Intermediate:||Time per item, comparison of performance to class or population norms|
|Advanced:||Item analysis, predictive validity, adaptability, prescriptive learning|
|Note: If your tool can only deliver assessments and track the results, it is an Assessment Management System (AMS), not an LMS.|
|CMS (Course Management System)|
|Course Management Software (Authoring):||A licensed software tool or suite of tools that enables an instructional designer to create ("author") online courseware, or modify commercially available lessons. (By 1997, this use of the term CMS is largely replaced by "authoring software.")|
|Course Management System (Administration):||A tool that supports a subset of Computer Aided Learning (CAL) functionality, namely utilities that allow instructors to store, maintain, and access student records; administer (i.e., allow or restrict access) courses, supportive materials, assessments, and surveys; and reserve facilities for face-to-face instruction (e.g., reserve rooms and equipment, assign personnel).
Note: In this classic use of the CMS acronym, CMS is synonymous with a basic LMS.
|Course Management System (Authoring and Administration):||In some cases, a Course Management System may include functionality of authoring courseware as well as administering it (PLATO is an example of such a tool).
Note: When you review LCMS, note the difference between being able to author a course and being able to manage the production elements of a collection of courses and reusable learning objects.
|LMS (Learning Management System)|
|Administer Online Courses:||Enable course administrators (e.g., instructors) to add, remove, and archive courses; allow or restrict access to a course or set of courses (e.g., a curriculum or learning plan) to specific learners or a set of learners based on some criteria (e.g., job title, self-registration); post supportive materials (e.g., articles, assignments, activities); communicate to students (e.g., announcements, automated emails, discussion groups); and enter and/or collect student performance data|
|Administer Classroom Courses:||In addition to the listed functionality above: Reserve facilities for live events (e.g., reserve rooms and equipment, assign personnel, set up webinar virtual rooms, schedule teleconferences)|
|Report Student Performance:||Allow instructors to store, maintain, and access student records (e.g., course or learning plan progress, scores)|
|Note: These are only the core functionalities required to classify a tool as an LMS. The robust LMSs of today have a much longer list of functions to meet the demands of the ever more savvy customer base.|
|LCMS (Learning Content Management System)|